The following components make for
successful balconies, courtyards, patios, plaza decks, and roofs, walking surfaces
including swimming pool surrounds:
- Surfaces and membranes are sloped minimum ¼ inch per
foot to drain, to drain all water, dew, and etc. to drains, scuppers or to
- All drains have weep holes with the waterproof membrane
wrapping into the clamping ring of the drain assembly. A secondary overflow drain is supplied to
accommodate water when the primary drain gets clogged up with leaves, etc. that
may prevent proper drainage. All
moisture above membrane systems in mortar beds are drained through the weep
holes at the drains.
- All surfaces drain away from the building structure.
- Correct expansion joints including isolation joints at
perimeter walls. An ideal condition for a swimming pool deck area is to have
drains on a 12-foot grid apart, starting at 6 feet from the swimming pool
coping expansion joint. Have all surfaces slope toward the drain at least ¼
inch per foot. Have the expansion joint locations on a 12-foot grid apart at
the highest mid point elevation between the drains, and have a minimum 3/8-inch
width expansion joint.
Remember the caulking/sealant at
the expansion joint needs to be a minimum shores “A” hardness of 35 or greater
in traffic areas.
- Flashing at all perimeter walls. Moisture in adjacent wall assemblies are
required to drain to the tile and stone surface, including weep screeds for
stucco wall assemblies. A drainage layer
allows for moisture easy egress to the drain, scupper or outfall.
- Tile and stone installations are installed in
accordance with ANSI minimum standards. ANSI A108.1 for mortar method and ANSI
A108.5 for thin-set method. Use MIA requirements for anchored stone.
- Membrane systems comply with AC39 requirements or are
tile industry approved materials for a given installation. Acceptance Criteria
39 of the International Conference of Building Officials has minimum
requirements for walking deck surfaces.
- In addition to flashing perimeter walls, tops of
parapet walls are required to have either sheet metal flashing or waterproof
membranes to protect all horizontal framing. Tops of parapet walls are
recommended to be sloped 1” for positive drainage. Penetrations in decks like
handrails are required to be properly sealed at penetrations. Fifteen-pound
asphalt saturated felt is approved for vertical applications only, and is not
approved for usage on the horizontal cap of parapet walls unless covered with
an approved waterproof membrane.
- Rain gutters from roofs are recommended to be tied into
drains to exit the structure. Rainwater
egress is not permitted to flow across public walkways.
- Vertical offset is necessary at door thresholds to
properly flash, waterproof, and have sufficient height to drain all water away
from the building structure.
- Plaza decks are acceptable using pedestal-type
systems. These are designed for severe
weather conditions with the same requirements as above.
- Walking surfaces meet 0.60 minimum coefficient of
- Unless roofs are sloped to drain over roof edges, roof
drains shall be installed at each low point of the roof. Roof drains shall be sized and discharged in
accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code. Overflow drains shall be connected
to drain lines independent from the roof drain lines.
- In areas subject to freeze thaw conditions, do not
install tile or stone subject to failure from freeze thaw conditions.
- Ceramic tile and stone installed in swimming pools,
spas, and fountains require adequate cure time of the setting materials. If a
latex Portland cement mortar or latex based waterproof membrane is used as part
of the swimming pool or spa, or fountain, the soap and surfactants in the latex
that assist in the curing process must also dry out prior to the introduction
of water. Water introduced too soon, can
cause the surfactant to re-liquefy and lose bond to the substrate.
- Adjacent landscaping should have adequate drainage to
accommodate high usage water flow. Lack of drainage can contribute to ground
saturation and earth movement.
- Slip trip and fall hazards should be eliminated
wherever possible. Where a single stair
can be made into a ramp, use the ramp. Handrails are required at all stairs.
- The property owners should plan maintenance on a